- Essay/Term paper: The problem of evil
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- GCSE Religious Studies Exemplar Essay - The Problem of Evil by pippaatkin | Teaching Resources
- RS Evil and Suffering Essay
Moreover, if we treat theism as a hypothesis rather than as a fact , theism might be subject to prima facie defeat by facts about suffering and misery, but nevertheless explain or predict a whole range of other data better than naturalism, such as our possession of reliable cognitive faculties, the existence of objective morality, the fine-tuning of the universe, the existence of abstract objects, and so on. But if some theists know that theism is true in virtue of religious experiences, say , then their theism is not subject to defeat by facts about suffering even disregarding these explanatory advantages.
Alvin Plantinga does not challenge and thus implicitly concedes the soundness of Paul Draper's argument for the conclusion that certain facts about good and evil are strong evidence against theism. Plantinga does, however, challenge Draper's view that naturalism is more plausible than theism, which Draper needs to reach the further conclusion that, other evidence held equal, theism is very probably false.
Essay/Term paper: The problem of evil
In addition, Plantinga challenges the significance of this final conclusion. In this chapter, Draper defends his views on plausibility and then argues that Plantinga's challenge to the significance of his final conclusion fails for two reasons. First, Plantinga fails to show that this further conclusion does not threaten the rationality or warrant of most theistic belief. Second, he mistakenly assumes that, in order to be significant, this conclusion must threaten the rationality or warrant of most theistic belief.
Theism: The Carrier-Wanchick Debate In this online debate between Richard Carrier and Tom Wanchick, Carrier opens with a discussion of method followed by 5 arguments for naturalism and 2 arguments against theism, while Wanchick opens with 9 arguments for theism. In the first rebuttals, each debater criticizes the arguments offered by the other in the opening statements. In the second rebuttals, each debater defends their opening arguments against the criticisms of the other in the first rebuttals. Both closing statements focus on the purported deficiencies of the other debater's overall case.
Several contemporary philosophers of religion have offered 'solutions' the problem of evil which insist that the world would actually be worse off than it currently is if there were no evil in it. Although John Hick's soul-making theodicy is the most prominent example of such a solution, Clement Dore has recently offered a theodicy that Weisberger dubs "the pollution solution. But as Weisberger points out, Dore fails to answer the critical question: Why couldn't God have created "nonpolluting" natural machinery?
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On the face of it, there is no reason to believe that such a world is logically impossible, and Dore offers no evidence to the contrary. Because there is so much relevant evidence, it is hard to be certain that the best explanation of so much horrible suffering and some remarkable and beneficial events is that there is no God but people are sometimes lucky. But such an explanation seems better than one that says that God intervenes and sometimes helps bring about good outcomes and other times allows bad outcomes for reasons beyond our ken. That theistic explanation has two strikes against it in that we cannot understand how an immaterial being can act on the material world, and it posits the existence of hidden reasons, those beyond our ken.
Whether it has three strikes against it depends on whether luck is an adequate explanation of events like the saving of the nine miners in Pennsylvania, the so-called Quecreek Miracle. Adams's Theodicy of Grace by Richard M. Robert M. Adams, in a brilliant, thought-provoking essay, 'Must God Create the Best? It makes available to God the following excuse for creating free beings who produce a less favorable balance of moral good over moral evil than that which would have been realized by other free beings he could have created: 'Sure I created some rotten apples or, at any rate, people who are morally inferior to others I could have created, but in doing so I was bestowing my grace upon them—creating them without any consideration of their moral merit.
So don't bug me about why I permitted there to be moral evil, or at least more moral evil than was required, given what my options were. In this review of Ted Drange's Nonbelief and Evil , Charles Echelbarger outlines the contribution that the book makes to the philosophy of religion literature, comparing it to the work of other nontheistic philosophers of religion and noting Drange's emphasis on the different conceptions of God that comprehensive nontheistic arguments must address.
He then turns to a discussion of Drange's two main arguments, the argument from evil and the argument from nonbelief, noting that Drange finds the latter superior to the more traditional argument from evil. He also notes that, on Drange's view, the argument from nonbelief has no force against the existence of the sort of remote Creator envisioned by radical deism.
Jordan Howard Sobel's Logic and Theism is long, abstruse, and technical, but valuable for those who have an interest in its topics. Those looking for arguments based on empirical phenomena said to be best explained by the God hypothesis should look elsewhere.
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Sobel's focus is, rather, issues of definition and logical structure. He addresses everything from the ontological argument to the fine-tuning argument, demolishing all of the main arguments for God's existence. Moreover, he argues that the kind of omnipotence and omniscience that theists ascribe to God is incoherent, and defends both evidential and logical arguments from evil against the existence of God.
Finally, he turns to a discussion of practical reasons for belief in God, such as those invoked by Pascal's wager.
No cutting-edge research on these topics should omit Sobel's work. If God is all-powerful, then he can prevent evil; and if he is as good as can be, then he will prevent it. Why, then, does evil exist? The existence of evil implies that either God is not all-powerful, or he is not perfectly good.kinun-houju.com/wp-content/jyhekif/1038.php
GCSE Religious Studies Exemplar Essay - The Problem of Evil by pippaatkin | Teaching Resources
If God interfered or became too close humans would not gain anything from the developmental process. Hicks therefore states that God created humans at an epistemic distance from Himself. The world of perfection will have to wait until heaven. The idea that all humans go to heaven is not just and Irenaean theodicy is not consistent with the fall in Genesis. Hick has been criticised with the reality that suffering often turns people away from God.
It is also argued that Irenaean theodicy does not justify the magnitude of suffering for soul making. Evil actions cannot always be blamed on free will e. Surely God could have created in such a way that the wonderful future did not require the extreme suffering evident throughout history in the world. Augustinian theodicy is soul deciding rather than soul making.
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He defined evil as the privation or lack of goodness, just as blindness is a privation of sight. Evil is not an entity in itself, just as blindness is not an entity in itself, God therefore could not have created it. Evil originates from free will given to humans who have turned their backs on God and settled for a lesser form of goodness.
This created a privation of goodness and as a result the state of perfection has been ruined by sin. Natural evil Augustine claimed came about because of a loss of order in nature. Augustine was aware of the flaw in his own argument regarding Adam and Eve and original sin because Adam and Eve could not have chosen evil if evil did not already exist. However, Augustine concluded that the fall of man in Genesis was the fault of Satan. However, the question still remained as to where Satan came from.
If God had created a perfectly good world, Satan would not be present in it. To overcome this difficulty with his theodicy Augustine stated that Satan was a former angel who had rebelled against God, was cast out of heaven to exist in the previously perfect world. These critics would argue that the universe began in chaos and is continually developing, not diminishing over time.
God cannot be justified in allowing the sin of one human being Adam to result in the punishment of all human beings. Plantinga sees free will as morally important because a world in which we have free will is better than one where we would not. His theory was that every decision any individual makes creates a new possible world. He states that before creation, God envisioned every single possible world and selected the one He wanted to implement. Plantinga states that no possible world existed where Adam and Eve did not fall.
God brought into being the best possible world that he was able to create and in order to do this free will was a necessity. God is not responsible for evil, because if humans choose evil instead of good, he cannot compel them to do good due to self-imposed restraints that he has placed upon himself. Looking for essay on philosophy? Let's see if we can help you! One of the key attributes that is in conflict with evil is moral scorn which according to Inwagen is the safest kind of evil because it is easily taken for granted by most people.
RS Evil and Suffering Essay
It is meant to belittle the actions, opinions or comments that individuals make towards something of common interest. Moral scorn conflicts with general scorn because it can be used against individuals who disagree with others by demonstrating self-righteous acts or moral posturing. Moral scorn is meant to belittle the actions or opinions of other people without necessarily being backed by evil feelings such as malice or hatred. Moral scorn deflects an argument from employing any forms of evil to one that employs self-righteousness or moral posturing meaning that it eliminates the occurrence of any form of evil completely Inwagen The free-will defense is the only response to the logical problem of evil because of the existence of rational, self-aware and good human beings who have a free choice or free will to take part in evil or good.
The free-will defense explains the presence of God to be that of an omnipotent being who grants human beings with the power of free choice and free will. Free-will is a great good created by God to outweigh the existence of evil in the world and it is therefore seen as a defense to the logical problem of evil. The simplistic form of free-will points to the fact that evil exists in the world and the existence of God as a morally upright being.
If evil did not exist in the world, there would be no need for human beings to decide whether they will engage in evil or good meaning that the free-will defense is meaningless Inwagen Because God created human beings to be rational when it came to choosing between good and evil, he would not be in existence if people lacked the free-will defense when choosing between right and wrong.
Free-will means that a person is morally responsible for the choices they have made bearing in mind that they had the choice to do otherwise. Free-will provides human beings with an option to choose what they think is right regardless of whether or not they think it is evil or good. The choice of free will therefore points to the existence of evil in the world and since free-will is a moral choice derived from morally right and rational human beings, it points to the existence of God as an omnipotent being